By Donald R. Griffin (auth.), René-Guy Busnel, James F. Fish (eds.)

Thirteen years have passed by because the first overseas meet­ ing on Animal Sonar structures was once held in Frascati, Italy, in 1966. given that that point, virtually 900 papers were released on its subject. the 1st symposium was once very important because it used to be the place to begin for brand new learn traces whose aim used to be to layout and increase technological platforms with homes imminent optimum organic platforms. there were hugely major advancements on the grounds that then in all domain names on the topic of organic sonar platforms and of their appli­ cations to the engineering box. The time had for this reason come for a multidisciplinary integration of the knowledge amassed, not just at the evolution of platforms utilized in animal echolocation, yet on platforms concept, habit and neurobiology, signal-to-noise ratio, overlaying, sign processing, and measures saw in sure species opposed to animal sonar structures. smooth electronics know-how and platforms thought that have been constructed merely considering the fact that 1974 now let designing subtle sonar and radar platforms using ideas derived from organic structures. on the time of the Frascati assembly, built-in circuits and technol­ ogies exploiting laptop technological know-how weren't good adequate built to yield merits now attainable via use of real-time research, resulting in, between different issues, a definition of goal temporal char­ acteristics, as organic sonar platforms may be able to do. All of those new technical advancements necessitate shut co­ operation among engineers and biologists in the framework of recent experiments which were designed, rather some time past 5 years.

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Because a fading procedure was used, the number of errors was minimized even when R. J. SCHUSTERMAN 24 100 HOLLOW STEEL-··A"" REPORT VS HOLLOW BRONZE- "B"" REPORT 11: .. 100 '" '" "'l- iw 11: I- 11:1- u w 11: 11: 8 ~"' >~ ao 11:'" e ,. ,. ~ v 70 0 Figure 4. " • j • 40 20 ,'. 0 0 12 " 20 ~ ,,:z; ~::l :'C ~I 28 TEST SESSIONS Acquisition of a hollow bronze and hollow steel differentiation regardless of the size of the outer diameter of the targets. ''Long'' observing responses occurred only in the presence of the small hollow steel target ("A" reports) and were a precursor of a significant increase in total correct responses.

A. E. Murchison Odontocete echolocation performance on object size, shape and material. E. Nachtigall Cetacean obstacle avoidance. B. Moore - Airborne Performance of airborne animal sonar systems I. MICROCHIROPTERA. U. W. Henson, Jr. Performance of airborne animal sonar systems II. W. Henson, Jr. U. Schnitzler BEHAVIORAL METHODOLOGY IN ECHOLOCATION BY MARINE MAMMALS Ronald J. Schusterman Department of Psychology and Biology California State University Hayward, California 94542 INTRODUCTION Despite the fact that a preponderance of the investigations dealing with echolocation by marine mammals has been done with intact animals performing some characteristic behavior, only a single paper written some fifteen years ago (Turner, 1964) has ever dealt in any profound way with problems of behavioral methodology.

Ccessive Target Presentation. A group of American invest igators at the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) in Hawaii have done a wide variety of echolocation experiments by presenting targets on successive trials and requiring the dolphin to respond to one of two spatially separated response manipulanda. g. g. to the animal's left) is reinforced if the target is absent ("no" response). In so-called discrimination or recognition experiments, targets usually differing multi-dimensionally control differential responding and the porpoise is reinfoced for responding to the manipulanda associated with a specific target.

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