By Karen Vieira Powers
This account of the local peoples of Ecuador within the 16th and 17th century indicates how they not just resisted, tailored, and survived Spanish colonization yet reinvented themselves as a tradition. provided are either a revisionist therapy of the demographic background of Amerindian Ecuador and a clearer realizing of North Andean ethnogenesis. Powers's learn of Andean inhabitants activities within the Audiencia of Quito from 1535 to 1700 indicates that local migrations account for a inhabitants raise in Quito in the course of a time while contiguous components skilled a fast decline in Indian inhabitants. past reconstructing the circulation of the local peoples, Powers additionally explores how migration replaced the lives of Indians and Spaniards. The migratory move from local groups to Spanish towns, cloth generators, and haciendas ended in a regularly mutating colonial international. For elite Spaniards, the migrations intended the close to cave in of the tribute and compelled hard work process, whereas nonelite Spaniards have been in a position to make the most of the choice exertions provided by means of the migrant Indians, leading to social mobility and the formation of recent sessions. For Indians, the migrations have been firstly a survival procedure yet led to the decline of the conventional chiefdom. A key discovering of the research is that Ecuadorean Indians accomplished cultural survival via reconstructing Andean lifeways contained in the websites to which they migrated.
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Additional info for Andean journeys: migration, ethnogenesis, and the state in colonial Quito
Some Spaniards, in their search for fame and fortune, were prompted to move from Quito, often taking whole encomiendas with them. In 1537 Pizarro ordered that Quito's peoples were not to be transferred to newly founded towns, because the region was on the verge of depopulation. However, as late as 1562, Andrés Contero forced a thousand highland Andeans to migrate to the newly established settlements of Quijos, in the eastern lowlands. 15 Page 17 The discovery of gold in the southern regions of the audiencia also had dire consequences for Quito's population.
Decline of the Cacicazgo and the Reconstitution of Andean Society 133 Conclusion 169 Appendix 175 Notes 183 Glossary 218 Bibliography 221 Index 231 About the Book and Author 237 Page viii Maps 1. The Audiencia of Quito, c. 1650 2 2. Administrative Organization of Audiencia of Quito, Sixteenth Century 25 3. Administrative Organization of Highland Quito, Seventeenth Century 52 Figures 1. Aboriginal Lowland/Highland Political Affiliations 27 2. Administrative Organization of Indigenous Society Under Spanish Rule 135 Page ix Tables 1.
Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the imposition of the new regime and its attendant abuses generated mass migrations of Amerindians away from their communities of origin. Because tribute and forced labor were levied on their communal villages, indigenous peoples often evaded these exactions by fleeing to Spanish cities, textile mills, and haciendas, to other native villages, and to inaccessible places. They lost themselves in urban and frontier settings or entered the employ of Spanish entrepreneurs and Amerindian lords, many of whom were eager to harness extra official labor.