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Heat losses must be calculated for a building as a whole. 3 per m 3 Austria: annual energy consumption in buildings Geographical location Energy consumption (MJ/m 3 ) U p to 3400 degree days U p to 3800 degree days U p to 4200 degree days 200 214 230 This calculation method accounts for the thermal charac­ teristics of a buildings envelope, the effect of windows or glazed areas, infiltration losses and geographic location. 3 above apply to both new and existing buildings. The Amendment to the Housing Improvement Act also has measures for improving the efficiency of space heating and hot water systems.

The United States could reduce demand by 5676 pj· Western European countries could lower consumption by about the same level as the United States. There is a 25 per cent drop in demand with conservation in the year 2000, but this is much lower than the United States in absolute terms. It amounts to energy savings of 3315 PJ by the end of the century and essentially no growth in demand from its 1975 level. Government forecasts are generally higher than the Trends Continued Case without conservation.

The sector buildings Conservation Case does not have greater savings for lighting and appliances than those already projected to take place Services are an economic activity that take place almost as a matter of course. exclusively in buildings. The energy aspects of the sector, The key indicators used to measure activity and conserva­ therefore, are related to energy consumption in service sector tion for heating purposes in the service sector are the specific buildings and not to economic activity per se.

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