By Hiroshi Shimizu, Takashi Hirasawa (auth.), Volker F. Wendisch (eds.)

Amino Acids Biosynthesis provides the present wisdom of primary in addition to utilized microbiology of amino acids. themes mentioned are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical law, delivery of amino acids and genomics of manufacturing microorganisms. The characterization of the keep watch over mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has printed insights into rules of genetic and biochemical legislation, corresponding to transcriptional regulators and a brand new type of regulatory parts, the riboswitch.

The quantity additional offers with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological creation of amino acids to be used as prescribed drugs and, rather, as nutrition and feed ingredients. entire reports are given of modern achievements to permit or enhance construction of amino acids and dipeptides by way of fermentation and enzyme catalysis. the following, the actual concentration is on metabolic engineering, the rational development of metabolic capabilities utilizing recombinant DNA technology.

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The null proA mutant of C. glutamicum can grow slowly under proline depletion conditions, suggesting that C. glutamicum Production of Glutamate and Glutamate-Related Amino Acids 29 has a ProA-independent bypass of conversion of γ -glutamyl phosphate to γ -glutamic semialdehyde. C. glutamicum and E. coli proA mutants were suppressed by a plasmid carrying C. glutamicum asd gene encoding aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, indicating that aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase might play a role in this bypass.

Becker Fig. 2 The four pathways of d,l-diaminopimelate and lysine synthesis from aspartate in prokaryotes: succinylase pathway (A); acetylase pathway (B), dehydrogenase pathway (C), and aminotransferase pathway (D). Enzymes involved in the succinylase pathway are: (1) tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase (DapD); (2) N-succinyl-aminoketopimelate aminotransferase (DapC); and (3) N-succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase (DapE). Enzymes of the acetylase pathway are: (4) tetrahydrodipicolinate acetylase; (5) N-acetylaminoketopimelate aminotransferase; and (6) N-acetyl-diaminopimelate deacetylase.

In both strains, the decrease in the ODHC specific activity is the one of the main factors. Since the relationship between the decrease in the ODHC specific activity and the change in flux was the same for both strains, an improvement in glutamate production is expected with the decrease in ODHC activity. Without the triggering effects, almost Fig. 10 Scheme of flux redistribution at 2-oxogluratate (α-KG) branch point in coryneform bacteria. Without the triggering effects, almost all 2-oxoglutarate was converted to succinyl-CoA catalyzed by ODHC and, consequently, glutamate was not overproduced.

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