By B. K. Tanner (auth.), Charles S. Barrett, John V. Gilfrich, Ting C. Huang, Ron Jenkins, Paul K. Predecki (eds.)

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REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. F. G. Yost, A. D. Romig, Jr. and R. J. Bourger, "Stress Driven Diffusive Voiding of AI-Conductor Lines: A Model for Time Dependent Failure", SAND 88-0946-UC-25-Sandia National Laboratory (1988). A. Segmuller, I. C. Noyan and V. S. Speriosu, "X-ray Diffraction Studies of Thin Films and Multilayer Structures", Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization, 18, 21-66 (1989) J. C. Bravman, W. D. Nix, D. M. Barnett and D. A. ) "Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties", MRS Soc.

By determining the activation energies of recovery a clue can be obtained as to what type of deformation microstructure is associated with the thermal response of the microstructure. 03 wt. 2 wt. 4 wt. 6 wt. 25 wt. 2 wt. 37 wt. 26 wt. 26 wt. 001 wt. 009 wt. 003 wt. % B. Tensile samples were prepared by cutting longitudinal strips from the tubes and annealing at 704°C for 15 hr. Prior to deformation, the samples were electropolished to remove a thin ground surface layer and any residual oxide layer.

N 2 2 X+E))cos X. (3) I. CHARACTERIZATION OF EPITAXIAL THIN FILMS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION 28 FIG 3: A cubic crystal with [Ill] normal to its face. , can be obtained. These can then be referred to the crystal axes using Eq~. 2 and the direction cosines between the axes Si and the crystal basis. The stresses in the crystal axial system can be obtained from: a ij a ij = (4) Cijk1 Ekl · These may be referred back to the axes Si by the inverse of Eqn. 2 (with replacing Eij ). In cases where a 13 = a 23 = a 33 = 0, that is, there are stresses only in the surface plane, assuming that the co-ordinates Si are along the principal axes; and (5) and to obtain the S' from S" in the crystal axial system: (6) S'ijk1 Also: (7) Employing Eqn's 5 to 7 for this special case: where C33' = Aa u A S' 31 cos 2¢CoS 2X - (S'34/2)sin 2¢CosX + (S'3si2)COs 2qx,in2X + Ba 22 , + S'32sin2¢ - (S'34/2)sin 2¢ sinX+S'3s12)cos 2qx,in 2x, and (8) (9) As a practical example, consider a Si wafer with a (Ill) plane as the surface.

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