By B. K. Tanner (auth.), Charles S. Barrett, John V. Gilfrich, Ting C. Huang, Ron Jenkins, Paul K. Predecki (eds.)
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Beginning with the 1st transistor in 1949, the area has skilled a technological revolution which has permeated such a lot facets of recent existence, really during the last iteration. yet one more such revolution looms up prior to us with the newly constructed potential to regulate subject at the nanometer scale.
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REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. F. G. Yost, A. D. Romig, Jr. and R. J. Bourger, "Stress Driven Diffusive Voiding of AI-Conductor Lines: A Model for Time Dependent Failure", SAND 88-0946-UC-25-Sandia National Laboratory (1988). A. Segmuller, I. C. Noyan and V. S. Speriosu, "X-ray Diffraction Studies of Thin Films and Multilayer Structures", Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization, 18, 21-66 (1989) J. C. Bravman, W. D. Nix, D. M. Barnett and D. A. ) "Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties", MRS Soc.
By determining the activation energies of recovery a clue can be obtained as to what type of deformation microstructure is associated with the thermal response of the microstructure. 03 wt. 2 wt. 4 wt. 6 wt. 25 wt. 2 wt. 37 wt. 26 wt. 26 wt. 001 wt. 009 wt. 003 wt. % B. Tensile samples were prepared by cutting longitudinal strips from the tubes and annealing at 704°C for 15 hr. Prior to deformation, the samples were electropolished to remove a thin ground surface layer and any residual oxide layer.
N 2 2 X+E))cos X. (3) I. CHARACTERIZATION OF EPITAXIAL THIN FILMS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION 28 FIG 3: A cubic crystal with [Ill] normal to its face. , can be obtained. These can then be referred to the crystal axes using Eq~. 2 and the direction cosines between the axes Si and the crystal basis. The stresses in the crystal axial system can be obtained from: a ij a ij = (4) Cijk1 Ekl · These may be referred back to the axes Si by the inverse of Eqn. 2 (with replacing Eij ). In cases where a 13 = a 23 = a 33 = 0, that is, there are stresses only in the surface plane, assuming that the co-ordinates Si are along the principal axes; and (5) and to obtain the S' from S" in the crystal axial system: (6) S'ijk1 Also: (7) Employing Eqn's 5 to 7 for this special case: where C33' = Aa u A S' 31 cos 2¢CoS 2X - (S'34/2)sin 2¢CosX + (S'3si2)COs 2qx,in2X + Ba 22 , + S'32sin2¢ - (S'34/2)sin 2¢ sinX+S'3s12)cos 2qx,in 2x, and (8) (9) As a practical example, consider a Si wafer with a (Ill) plane as the surface.