By J.H.S. Blaxter, Frederick S. Russell, Maurice Yonge (Eds.)

Quantity 25 of this authoritative assessment sequence maintains the excessive typical set by means of the editors some time past. Marine biologists all over have come to worth and revel in the big variety of thought-provoking papers written through invited specialists. during this quantity are stories of 4 animal teams which span the complete variety of the marine foodstuff chain. The function of parasites in ecology is a turning out to be curiosity and the parasites of zooplankton are defined intimately for the 1st time. features of thegastropods, cephalopods and fish existence also are tested intimately.

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ISBN: 0674065859
EAN: 9780674065857
ASIN: 0674065859
Publisher: Harvard collage Press
Publication Date: 2012-04-30
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Extra resources for Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 19

Example text

Phoronis muelleri. This species is characteristic of muddy bottoms, with a sandy, sometimes a coarse, fraction, over a large recorded depth range, from 1 to 390 m (Fig. 29). 60 m, whilst Holthe (1973,1977) described P . muelleri as abundant all over the Borgenfjorden, from 10 to 25 m, and in Trondheimsfjorden usually from 10 to 50 m (mostly 2@25 m ) with some locations at 100 m and one at 208 m. Thomassin and Emig (1980) sampled P . muelleri during the “BenthediExpedition” from 5 to 390m, most individuals being collected between 16 and 30 m.

IV. ACTIKOTROCH LARVAE A. General Account The characteristic phoronid larva is termed Actinotrocha (or actinotroch) which must only be used as a technical name of the larval forms as stated by Sil6n (1952) in a footnote. The actinotroch has a pelagic existence: swimming near the sea surface for several days (Table 11). The larva is a familiar constituent of the plankton, with a world-wide distribution. Only Phoronis ovalis is a curious exception (Sil&n,1954a). The actinotroch seems to be photopositive, but its position at the sea surface depends upon the water movements, which if they are strong induce the larva to sink down (Hermann, 1976).

Muelleri and P . psammophila which may both be mixed in the same locations. Actinotocha branchiata is a transparent larva with numerous pigmented amoebocytes; yellow pigments are located at the base of the tentacles, around the preoral lobe and near the ciliated perianal ring. This larva, the largest known in phoronids, grows to an unusual size (about 2 mm in length), and the larval tentacle number increases to 42. Paired vacuolated stomach diverticula are present, as are two ventral blood masses just above the nephridial site, lateral to the stomach.

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